- Orlovsky list - features of embroidery
- "Set" or filling technique inside the contour
- Plots and motifs of embroidery Orel
- Video: old Russian embroidery "Orlovsky list"
Orlovsky list. This mysterious name belongs not to a fairy tale, but to an old embroidery, geographically belonging to the Russian lands, more specifically to the city of Orel, as it is evident from its name. And indeed, this embroidery has traditionally been performed in the Orel province since the very times when the Vyatichi tribes lived there. Common in it are the various symbols, which in those ancient times were pagan. These signs served as a guard for people, so up to now the plot line of the Oryol spill is considered and is basically protective.
Orlovsky list - features of embroidery
In the local history museum of the city of Eagle to the present dayStored more than a hundred copies of embroidery, whose age dates back to the 18th century. Those same symbols that were considered magical, had the form of rhombuses, crosses or different birds, as well as other signs. The contours of the composition have always been sheathed with a tambour or stalk seam, and the filling inside the contour was performed in the "set" technique. This type of seam refers to counting seams. It resembles a countable "smooth surface". At the same time, each embroideress invented her own, unique pattern for filling, invented drawings and original combinations. The names of these patterned fillings (branoks), sound very expressive: "bells", "crow's eye", "wave."
In the color range of embroidery Orlovsky list in hisThe gamut of colors allows the predominance of various shades of red, rarely blue. The spectrum expands only in the 20th century, when yellow, green and black color was added to it. Red-blue combination of colors from ancient times had a profound meaning. Red symbolized life itself, and blue denoted the sky and water. Interesting is the name: Orlovsky list. There are many different opinions, but research shows that the word "list" means "writing off." There is a possibility that the Orel masters despatched their fairy motives, watching the miraculous frosty patterns on the windows when they embroidered with endless winter evenings.
According to another no less plausible version,Orlovsky list appeared as an organic continuation of the ancient Russian sewing with gold and silver threads. This idea is striking similarity of the rounded forms of both embroideries. The presence of the stalked pattern and the uneven filling of the figures also coincide. The peculiarity of the Oryol spill is its multifaceted nature. The variety in forms, symbols, various figures and outlines of animals amazes.
"Set" or filling technique inside the contour
To perform counting seams, a structureFabric with a uniform weave, the same density and thickness of the warp threads. Calculation of stitching stitches should correspond to the score of fabric threads. The "set" technique is a two-way fast sewing. It is recommended to make a seam "forward needle" on the count of threads taking into account the pattern. The working thread is carried by a continuous straight stitch in a horizontal or vertical direction, from one end of the work to the other and back. On the account of threads of a fabric the alternating transition to the front and the underside is also carried out. On the wrong side of the work comes the negative pattern. So, as a result, the "set" pattern has the appearance of parallel rows of vertical or horizontal stitches, which are laid through one or two strands.
The term "branki" is closely related to the Orlovsky embroideryList. The outlines of this embroidery are very diverse. It's rhombic and various geometric motifs, bizarre flowers and long leaves with cuts. The contours of the figures are lined with a tambour or stalk seam in several folds of a dark colored thread. Inside the contour fill each small detail of the ornament, sewing them with the smallest multicolored cuttings, which are usually called brans. The drawing in them is made up of the smallest geometric shapes. These can be triangles, checkers or zigzags of different colors.
Branks are divided into several types, they are simple, complex and complex.
Simple brans. These are stitches and intervals between them, the same in size.
Compound brans. These are alternating short and long stitches, as well as intervals repeating with the same frequency in each row or across a row.
Complicated brans. These are stitches and intervals, different in length, in position on the embroidery from row to row and forming a different pattern.
Orlovsky list since ancient times, embroidered,Using plates called bralnitsami. With their help on the canvas were considered the warp threads. Orlovsky write the list in very small stitches, counting exactly the threads of the canvas. It is these small stitches that make up brunks. Small geometric patterns branok gradually fill arbitrary smooth lines of the contour pattern. The pattern is smoothly flowing from one form to another.
Plots and motifs of embroidery Orel
"Tree of Life" This embroidery has a lot of encryptedValues and values. And the ciphers are carefully preserved and passed on to the next generations by inheritance. The most famous old story lines are:
The main motive of the Orlovski spill is "The TreeLife ". In ancient times, the elements of plants symbolized the very concept of Life, and not specific vegetation. They acquired a universal, cosmic meaning, as a consequence of the impact on the planet of solar energy and water. Pay attention that on all embroideries next to plant motifs there are necessarily different spirals, circles and crosses. This is a tribute to the sun, the so-called solar signs.
"Bird of the Pava" Bird of the pava (bird of happiness), asUsually has a small neat head, a fan-shaped tail, a wing raised up and a feather lying next to it, most likely a magical one. Similar images of birds are found on Slavic metal objects found during the excavation of ancient burial mounds. From this it follows that the plot is rooted in very distant times. The obligatory and final element is the border-charm. It gives the embroidery completeness and serves as a special amulet for the entire composition. Most often, the fringe consists of a strip of branocs (checkers and crushers), which alternate with each other. Bindweeds, stars and rhombuses may also be present.
In our turbulent time the Oryol list, like many othersTypes of folk art, was temporarily consigned to oblivion. But in recent years needlework has begun to revive and has again become fashionable. Orlovsky list, as well as many other types of folk art, is reborn with a new force thanks to the skilled craftsmen who have preserved traditions and techniques of craftsmanship. The elders convey their rich experience to the young, who painstakingly study needlework in all its diversity. They master the old techniques and techniques of the Oryol spell, being continuers of ancient traditions.
Video: old Russian embroidery "Orlovsky list"